What requirements will be requested for the grid connection of generators and plants in Denmark?
There are different grid code regulations in Denmark, each with a specific applicability to cover all types of generators connected to the Danish public electricity grid. The main standards are:
- TR 3.2.1: Applicable to generators with a phase current of 16A or lower.
- TR 3.2.2: Applicable to grid-connected photovoltaic generators with an output power greater than 11 kW.
- TR 3.2.5: Applicable to grid-connected wind generators with an output power greater than 11 kW.
- TR 3.3.1: Applicable to grid-connected storage installations.
These regulations are derived from the European RfG (Regulation on Requirements for Generators) 631/2016, and the technical requirements requested bear great similarity to this and other regulations in Europe. As part of these requirements, it is necessary to provide the grid operator with a simulation model that accurately represents the behaviour of the installation, ensuring the safety of the electrical system given the significant deployment of renewables in recent years.
Below are the required requirements for some of these grid codes regarding the simulation models that must be submitted to the TSO (Transmission System Operator) for verification and granting the final operational notification (FON) of the installation.
- Required model for plants type C and D.
- Model represented as a block diagram that describes the plant and must include all control and protection functions mentioned in Clauses 5 and 6.
- The simulation model of the plant can be verified by an accredited entity for control modes specified in Clause 5, or alternatively, measurements must be sent to the TSO for validation within 3 months after the commissioning of the installation.
- For plants of type C and D, a verification report must be issued, explicitly and in detail documenting the procedure and results of each test and simulation.
The requirements are the same as defined in the previous mentioned regulation, TR 3.2.2, with the exception that type B installations must also submit simulation models of the turbines to the TSO.
The requirements regarding the simulation model for this regulation are very strict and applicable to the installations indicated in the table provided:
Depending on the type of plant, the model must comply with certain technical requirements.
The most important consideration in this regulation is that the shared models with the TSO must undergo validation against field measurements, with a series of allowed maximum tolerances depending on the analysed control mode. This validation must be documented in a verification report to be submitted to the network operator no later than 3 months after the definitive commissioning of the installation.
As mentioned in this article, grid code regulations are increasingly implementing simulation requirements, enabling national TSOs to perform analyses for the safety of the electrical system. In this regard, CERE has an electrical simulation department with the capability to carry out verification studies of technical requirements for numerous grid codes worldwide, always providing our experience as an accredited entity for many of them.